Impartiality and the BBC…

The issue of BBC and impartiality seems never far from the surface these days – and during the highly charged Brexit process it seems to have erupted more and more. So much so that Ofcom, who have been the BBC’s regulator since it took the role from the BBC Trust in 2017, are now undertaking a review.

This review is very much to be welcomed – but it needs to be understood too. This is not happening, as some seem to think, as a recognition of BBC bias, or an acknowledgement that something is wrong in practice with the BBC’s output. The terms of the review give a somewhat less direct explanation. The Terms of Reference of the review state that:

“We will seek to understand more clearly the importance the audience places on the BBC’s impartiality; whether they are satisfied that the current tools used to ensure due impartiality are effective; and how audience attitudes to impartiality, accuracy and trust relate to one another.”

This is much more about perception of impartiality than the practice. It is primarily a review of audience opinion rather than the BBC’s practices. It is, however, an in depth review and is very much to be welcomed – but whether it will go far enough or deep enough to satisfy the BBC’s critics is another matter entirely. The first signs are not as positive as they might be. When the BBC’s Director General, was reported to have said that “We must stand up for it and defend our role like never before,” it set alarm bells ringing. Defensiveness, in many ways, is the last thing that the BBC should be thinking about now.

Indeed, in relation to impartiality in particular, the BBC’s defensiveness has been a big part of the problem. Whenever the BBC has been seen to be partial, it’s first reaction – and indeed that of its senior journalists and producers, particularly when responding in the social media – has been a kind of aggressive and dismissive defensiveness. ‘How dare you suggest that’ and ‘don’t be ridiculous’ has been the general tone pretty much every time, even when it is pretty clear that the BBC has made a mistake, an error of judgment, or been ‘played’ by someone in order to gain an advantage. These things happen – and the BBC’s often intense denial that it is even conceivable that they have looks not only ridiculous in itself but undermines the very trust that the BBC seeks to protect.

Neutrality and impartiality

It is important to be clear in what way the BBC is required to be impartial. The Broadcasting Code requires that the BBC (and other broadcasters)”…ensure that news, in whatever form, is reported with due accuracy and presented with due impartiality.”

Note that the requirements for accuracy and impartiality are together – impartiality and accuracy are two parts of the same requirement, and quite rightly. Whilst ensuring that there is impartiality, broadcasters should not take their eye of accuracy. If one side of a debate is telling the truth and the other is telling lies, it is not breaching impartiality to call out the lies, even if that looks as though it is being harder on one side than the other. If one side is lying, the due in due impartiality actually requires the lies to be called out.

The code makes a big point of what due is supposed to imply:

“Due” is an important qualification to the concept of impartiality. Impartiality itself means not favouring one side over another. “Due” means adequate or appropriate to the subject and nature of the programme. So “due impartiality” does not mean an equal division of time has to be given to every view, or that every argument and every facet of every argument has to be represented.

This is where, at least in perception, the BBC starts to get itself into trouble. That trouble has been official in relation to climate change, when it was rebuked by Ofcom for not challenging Lord Lawson sufficiently in an interview on Radio 4’s Today Programme in 2017, but has been made more intense over Brexit, when many people have suggested that the BBC’s journalists have not challenged the claims made, particularly by leading Brexiters, or called out things that are known to be untrue. In order to be seen to be impartial, it looks as though the BBC has let the requirement for accuracy slip, and potentially to a dangerous degree.

Being criticised by both sides isn’t evidence of impartiality

The BBC is of course criticised by both sides in the Brexit debate. Remainers claim the BBC is biased towards Brexit. Brexiters claim the BBC is biased towards Remainers. It is sometimes claimed, even by people in the BBC, that this is in some ways evidence that the BBC is impartial, or is getting the balance right. It is really important to understand that this is a logical fallacy. If you are getting the balance right, then you might well be criticised by both sides – but the converse is not true. One of the sides may be criticising you fairly, the other side unfairly. If one side sees that the bias is going their way, then they may well criticise anyway, to try to keep that bias in place, and to try to cancel out the criticism from their opponents. Bad faith criticism, to try to bully the journalists and indeed the BBC, is to be expected – particularly when the facts and evidence surrounding a particular issue point clearly in one way rather than the other. If you don’t have the facts on your side, using under-hand methods is one of the tools at your disposal – and that includes bad faith attacks on the broadcasters.

This does not, of course, mean that all criticism of the BBC and other broadcasters is done in bad faith – very much the opposite – but it does mean that the argument that because both sides are attacking we must be being neutral or impartial is fundamentally flawed. Criticisms should be taken seriously, but taken with a distinct pinch of salt

Particular problems in the current era

Times are particularly challenging right now, and not just because politics is particularly heated. The BBC is facing a complex environment that puts particular pressures on its news and current affairs role – and particularly its impartiality.

One of the most important is the danger that it faces in being ‘played’ by people with a vested interest. This manifests itself in many different ways, from murkier funded ‘Think tanks’ pretending to be neutral themselves and portraying themselves as researchers when they are really highly manipulative lobbyists, to people trying to gain fame or push their particular personal agendas. Problems like the ‘fake vicar‘ who appeared on Newsnight might have many different explanations, but they certainly do not inspire trust.

Newsnight’s use of one of his own propaganda pictures as the backdrop for their feature on Stephen Yaxley-Lennon (‘Tommy Robinson’) might also fit into this category – it was certainly a significant mistake, but whether it was accidental or Newsnight being played we may never find out – particularly as the BBC refuses to even countenance the possibility that it was wrong. The regular problems with apparent ‘plants’ in the audiences of Question Time might fit along the same lines – again it is not always clear whether these people blag their way into the audiences or are actually invited, as one UKIP candidate who managed to get on the programme three times has claimed.

Another challenge to the BBC is the apparent untouchability of its ‘big beasts’ – presenters such as Andrew Neil and perhaps most prominently John Humphrys – who headline the highest profile programmes. This points to another of the BBC’s biggest dilemmas – balancing ‘box office’ with informative, impartial and accurate journalism. When the presenters become the stars, that balance is challenged.

Headlines and Tweets

Another huge challenge, and one faced by the whole of the media, not just the BBC, is a failure to grasp the importance of headlines and summaries. Traditionally journalists have had little or no control over the headlines that accompany their stories – and in the past this has mostly been an annoyance, but little more. Now, however, it matters in many more ways. It is not just that people will often only see the headlines – that was always true, as you look at a newspaper in a shop, or see someone else reading it on the train – but that those headlines can often be the only thing that can be seen. It is what appears in search results, for example, or in a Twitter or Facebook feed. It is what is automatically generated if you click the button to tweet a story – you have to manually go in and change it if you want to say something different.

It can be screen-shotted without providing a link to the actual story. It can be used by manipulative politicians to imply something quite different from the intention of the story itself – Jacob Rees-Mogg has a particular track record here, but he is far from alone. There are people trying to manipulate news output all the time – it is one of the key features of the ‘post-truth’ era.

What needs to be done?

The first thing is to welcome this current review – and to encourage Ofcom to take it seriously, and the BBC to address it properly, and without this instinctive defensiveness that has characterised their approach to criticism so far. That, indeed, might be the single most important thing for the BBC to do. We all make mistakes – and we all know that others make mistakes. That includes the BBC.

Without acknowledging, let alone apologising for their mistakes, the BBC looks worse and worse. The kind of dismissive responses to questions about impartiality, from the Corbyn/Kremlin backdrop to the Fake Vicar to the ‘jokes’ about Diane Abbott prior to airtime on Question Time, do the BBC a lot of harm. The BBC can easily seem aloof, arrogant, looking down its nose at its audience – that really needs to change.

One way it needs to change is more openness about the debates that are going on. I am sure, from the people that I know at the BBC, that when something bad happens there are many people worried about it, wondering whether they misjudged the issue, and worse. I know there are people in the BBC, for example, who are concerned about the BBC’s role in the rise to prominence of Nigel Farage, and others who are embarrassed about the arrogance of some presenters on the Today Programme. These debates must be happening in the BBC behind closed doors – there should be some way to show the public that the BBC is at least aware that there are problems, and problems with practice not just with the perception of audiences.

If the BBC could, just once, say something along the lines of ‘yes, we may have misjudged that, and with hindsight we shouldn’t have used that picture/invited that person to be interviewed, or we could have been tougher in our questioning of that politician, rather than going straight onto the ‘how dare you criticise us’ road, it would really help.

Taking genuine experts more seriously would also help – and again, I know the BBC does try hard here, and I know that many experts are hard to reach or less good ‘box office’ than politicians or ‘think tank’ representatives, but it really matters. That last part, the use of lobbyists without knowing or acknowledging their real background, funding and so forth, has been a perennial problem.

We need the BBC

The importance of the BBC in the current era cannot be overstated. We need high quality, relatively impartial, and accurate and informative journalism now more than ever. In the struggle with fake news and other forms of misinformation, the existence of reliable ‘real’ news is a crucial tool. The BBC ought to be able to provide it – it holds a unique and critical position. Its grip on that position, however, is far from firm. Changes need to be made if it is to be maintained. I hope the BBC is brave enough to make them.

(This is of course my own personal, biased and far from impartial perspective).

SLS 2019 – University of Central Lancashire, Preston

NOW EXTENDED FOR ANOTHER WEEK. NEW DEADLINE MONDAY 25th MARCH!

Here’s the official call for papers for the Cyberlaw section of the SLS


SLS Cyberlaw Section: Call for Papers/Panels for 2019 SLS Annual Conference at the University of Central Lancashire, Preston

This is a call for papers and panels for the Cyberlaw section of the 2019 Society of Legal Scholars Annual Conference to be held at the University of Central Lancashire in Preston, from Tuesday 3rd September – Friday 6th September. This year’s theme is ‘Central Questions About Law.

The Cyberlaw section will meet in the first half of the conference on Tuesday 3rd and Wednesday 4th September.

If you are interested in delivering a paper or organising a panel, please submit your paper abstract or panel details by 11:59pm UK time on Monday 18th March 2019. All abstracts and panel details must be submitted through the Oxford Abstracts conference system which can be accessed using the following link – https://app.oxfordabstracts.com/stages/1028/submission – and following the instructions (select ‘Track’ for the relevant subject section). If you registered for Oxford Abstracts for last year’s conference, please ensure that you use the same e-mail address this year if that address remains current. If you experience any issues in using Oxford Abstracts, please contact slsconference@mosaicevents.co.uk.

Decisions will be communicated by the end of April.

I would welcome proposals for papers and panels on any issue relating to social media regulation, data protection, copyright reform and surveillance, including those addressing this year’s conference theme and though it might seem hard to predict, on the impact of Brexit on all aspects of cyber law. We welcome proposals representing a full range of intellectual perspectives in the subject section, and from those at all stages of their careers.

Those wishing to present a paper should submit a title and abstract of around 300 words. Those wishing to propose a panel should submit a document outlining the theme and rationale for the panel and the names of the proposed speakers (who must have agreed to participate) and their abstracts. Sessions are 90 minutes in length and so we recommend panels of three to four speakers, though the conference organisers reserve the right to add speakers to panels in the interests of balance and diversity.

As the SLS is keen to ensure that as many members with good quality papers as possible are able to present, we discourage speakers from presenting more than one paper at the conference. With this in mind, when you submit an abstract via Oxford Abstracts you will be asked to note if you are also responding to calls for papers or panels from other sections.

Please also note that the SLS offers a Best Paper Prize which can be awarded to academics at any stage of their career and which is open to those presenting papers individually or within a panel. The Prize carries a £250 monetary award and the winning paper will, subject to the usual process of review and publisher’s conditions, appear in Legal Studies. To be eligible:

  • speakers must be fully paid-up members of the SLS (Where a paper has more than one author, all authors eligible for membership of the Society under its rule 3 must be members. The decision as to eligibility of any co-authors will be taken by the Membership Secretary, whose decision will be final.)
  • papers must not exceed 12,000 words including footnotes (as counted in Word);
  • papers must be uploaded to the paperbank by 11:59pm UK time on Monday 26th August; and
  • papers must not have been published previously or have been accepted or be under consideration for publication.
  • papers must have been accepted by a convenor in a subject section and an oral version of the paper must be presented at the Annual Conference.

I have also been asked to remind you that all speakers will need to book and pay to attend the conference and that they will need to register for the conference by Friday 14th of June in order to secure their place within the programme, though please do let me know if this deadline is likely to pose any problems for you. Booking information will be circulated in due course, and will open after the decisions on the response to the calls are made.

With best wishes,

Paul Bernal

Corbyn and those European Courts

Jeremy Corbyn caused some distress amongst legal commentators over the weekend when he said to Andrew Marr that the European Court of Human Rights was ‘only in part an EU institution’. That simply isn’t true: the European Court of Human Rights (‘ECtHR’) is not in any way an EU institution. It is a Council of Europe court – and the Council of Europe is an organisation both broader and older than the European Union. The ECtHR exists to enforce the European Convention on Human Rights (the ‘ECHR’ – yes, all these abbreviations are confusing), something that was created in the aftermath of the Second World War and the Holocaust, agreed in 1950 and entering into force in 1953. Brits played a key part in its creation – it is something that for the most part the British legal community are justifiably proud of. So no, the ECtHR is not in any way an EU institution.

There is a link to the EU in a way, as a number of people have mentioned – but not in a way that makes the ECtHR in any way an EU institution. This link is that new member states of the EU are required to have signed up to the European Convention of Human Rights – and thus come under the jurisdiction of the ECtHR. This is because the EU recognises that the ECHR represents a minimum standard of Human Rights compliance – not that the ECHR is an EU document or the ECtHR is an EU institution. It isn’t even legally certain that existing members of the EU are required to be signatories of the ECHR – they all are, however, and no sensible or even slightly humane member state would be considering leaving the ECHR.

This is because the ECHR is a throughly positive document, and anyone who supports human rights should support our continuing to be a signatory. Certainly any Labour Party member – let alone any Labour Party leader, particularly one like Jeremy Corbyn with a history of supporting – indeed championing – human rights.

There is, however, at least one person who has suggested that we leave the ECHR: Theresa May. She’s been frustrated by the ECtHR more than once – and it is hard not to conclude that she’s far from a fan of human rights. Indeed, some have suggested that her antipathy for the ECJ – the European Court of Justice, which is is Luxembourg, as opposed to the ECtHR which is in Strasbourg – because she’s confused between the two courts.

That confusion is why so many legal commentators reacted so angrily to Corbyn’s remarks. Muddying waters that are already pretty murky feeds into the confusion between the courts – and potentially puts human rights even further at risk than they already are.

There is another potential reason that Corbyn might not want to be completely clear about this. If you support the European Court of Human Rights – which you should do if you support human rights – then that gives yet another reason to oppose Brexit. Whilst we’re still in the EU, it’s harder for the likes of Theresa May to achieve their aim of removing us from the ECHR – though technically, as noted, existing members may not be required to be signatories of the ECHR, that has not been tested and is highly unlikely. Keeping us in the EU provides another layer of protection for human rights. That, in these somewhat troubling times, might be crucial.

Fake with Jake…

Yesterday Jacob Rees-Mogg demonstrated one of the key techniques of ‘fake news’ – not once, but twice – and at the same time showed quite how difficult it will be to do anything meaningful to address ‘fake news’. Most of the attempts to address ‘fake news’ have centred on the most obvious symptoms – items that are individually and specifically ‘faked’, or accounts specifically designed to distribute this kind of fake news. Jacob Rees-Mogg’s actions yesterday did not involve either of those. Rather, it took ‘real’ news from reputable sources, deliberately misinterpreted it, using the headlines in a way they were not intended, to help weave a fake narrative. Just as fake, even more damaging, and much harder to fight.

Here is the first:

The source is impeccable: the Irish Examiner, a reputable newspaper, quoting the Irish PM, the Taoiseach. And yet the interpretation by Rees-Mogg is almost entirely fake. The article does not say what Rees-Mogg says at all – this is how it quotes Varadkar in the text:

If you look at the detail of the piece, the nuance comes out. Varadkar says that no hard border will be require the moment of no deal, because up until that point there will be a de-facto alignment of customs, but the moment there is divergence a border will be required. That does not mean that no deal means no need for the backstop: precisely the opposite. It is exactly why a backstop is required: to be ready for this divergence, should it be about to happen.

Could Rees-Mogg be interpreting the piece incorrectly in error? Or is it deliberate, assuming that most of his followers won’t even bother reading the piece and will take his summary as the truth. The number of retweets and likes suggests that this last part – the acceptance of his interpretation – is at least true. As for his intentions, that, ultimately, is a matter for him. The second example, however, makes it harder to maintain the ‘innocent error’ explanation…

This time a not-quite-so-impeccable source – the Conservative Party – but quoting a much more reliable source, Forbes. Again, the headline all makes sense, but again Rees-Mogg’s interpretation goes directly against the content of the piece (which can be found here) from which the Conservative Party drew its conclusions:

Again, this is pretty much precisely the opposite of Rees-Mogg’s interpretation. Forbes are not saying that the UK will be even better outside the EU – but that being in the EU is one of the reasons that the UK has done well, and why this is highly unlikely to continue once we leave (let alone if we leave without a deal).

In both cases, the sources are good, but they are being used to spread a narrative that is essentially false. In both cases, as can be seen by the retweets and likes, this false narrative is being spread enthusiastically by Rees-Mogg’s followers. In neither case would any of the methods currently proposed for dealing with ‘fake news’ make the slightest difference to what has been done.

There are some lessons to be learned. The Irish Examiner should have been more careful about its tweet – the wording left it open for misinterpretation and misquotation. The rest of the media should be more critical and sceptical about politicians – Rees-Mogg needs to be challenged in every interview when he says things like this, as do politicians of all sides talking on all subjects. The only real weapon that we have against ‘fake news’, whether the directly fake or the fake narratives spread by Rees-Mogg and many more on both left and right (and indeed in the centre) is real news and a properly critical and sceptical media that focuses as much on accuracy as their own interpretation of impartiality.

Do I expect any of this to happen? Not really. The media has largely failed us in recent years, particularly over Brexit, and I don’t think there is much sign of it changing. It is too important, however, to just give up. We need to become cleverer, more ‘savvy’, more ‘media literate’, and keep fighting. That’s all there is left.

Thanks to @StevePeers and @DeclanButlerNat for pointing out the second story. You can find some of my academic work on fake news in my new book, The Internet, Warts and All, Free Speech, Privacy and Truth, and in my even newer piece on the role of Facebook, in the Northern Ireland Legal Quarterly, available online (and open access) here.

Fake news and fake vicars…

The furore over the ‘fake vicar’ on Newsnight has caused a lot of trouble – but some of the most important aspects of the story seem to have been missed, lost in amongst the anger, defensiveness, accusations and counter accusations. For some it is a storm in a teacup, for others evidence of conspiracies, for still more evidence that others believe in conspiracies. Lord Adonis suggested the BBC paid the ‘fake vicar’ as an actress, Emily Maitlis accused Lord Adonis of spreading fake news, and the official BBC News PR team denied everything – everything, that is, except what people were really bothered about. The idea that the BBC actually paid the fake vicar to appear as an actress playing the part of a panellist was never the real point of the story – and it’s so unlikely as to be a genuine conspiracy theory, and is therefore very easy indeed for the BBC to deny. There are, however, much bigger questions with much more disturbing possible answers that the story brings up. Were the BBC ‘played’ by the fake vicar? Were they careless in their research when recruiting her for their panel? And why, in the face of all this, do they find it so, so hard to admit to any kind of mistake, apologise, and help rebuild our trust – at a time when trust in the BBC hangs by a thread, and is of more importance than it has ever been?

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‘Lynn’ appeared as a panellist on Newsnight, dressed, as can be seen, as a more or less traditional vicar – and yet that really was not who she was. As people on the internet quickly discovered, she was an actress – who incidentally had appeared a number of times on BBC programmes – who was also a ‘pastor’ of an obscure and distinctly dodgy internet-based church (the ‘Seeds of Wealth’ church). She also had pretty extreme views on Brexit, Islam and related subjects. What she clearly wasn’t was a vicar – and the Seeds of Wealth church does not appear to use old-fashioned C-of-E-style dog collars or anything like them. She was, to all intents and purposes, wearing a costume and playing a part.

Does this really matter? Why shouldn’t people of unusual and extreme views be allowed to be on panels on Newsnight? Here are the seeds of the problem. It’s not that she shouldn’t be allowed on Newsnight, and it’s not that extreme views shouldn’t be presented – but that deception should be avoided. This is where the ‘fakeness’ comes in, and where it fits with the pattern of fake news in general – part of what I research in my academic work. There is a chapter about it in my recent book, The Internet, Warts and All, and another academic piece just released about Facebook’s role in the fake news problem. One of the key lessons to learn from the study of Fake news is that it is rarely about things that are totally false, and rarely about trying to change people from one thing to quite another. It’s about ‘nudging’ and persuading, about taking nuggets of truth and distorting them, changing the focus, and gradually shifting people’s views or the intensity with which they hold those views. This is an old technique – Evelyn Waugh explained one aspect of it very well in his seminal novel about journalism, ‘Scoop’, in 1938:

“I read the newspapers with lively interest. It is seldom that they are absolutely, point blank wrong. That is the popular belief, but those who are in the know can usually discern an embryo of truth, a little grit of fact, like the core of a pearl, round which have been deposited the delicate layers of ornament.”

In this case, the little grit of fact was that Lynn was a pastor. Dressing her up as a conventional vicar is just a little shift, but changes the story. Having an obscure, weird, internet-church pastor say that she’s right behind Theresa May’s Brexit plan is one thing, having a respectable-looking middle-aged vicar say so is quite another. The details can be defended – indeed, the BBC has defended them quite vigorously – the overall story, however, is far harder to defend. Lynn was a fake vicar. In effect, she was a fake panellist. Newsnight, knowingly or unknowingly, was part of a fake story.

This fits with a pattern for the BBC – and for Newsnight in particular. Appearances matter, whether in the dog-collars of panellists or in the choices of backdrops. When Newsnight portrayed Jeremy Corbyn in front of the Kremlin, there was a similar fuss, but it similarly missed the point.

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The focus of the attention on this picture was generally ‘was his hat photoshopped to look more Russian’, and again the BBC could and did vigorously defend itself on this point, and indeed provided evidence to back themselves up. This wasn’t a fake hat, just his usual hat in profile. And yes, they’d done a photo of Tory minister Gavin Williamson with the same Kremlin background in a previous programme. The difference was more subtle. Williamson was pictured away from the actual Kremlin, on the other side of the screen. He was wearing a suit, not looking in the slightest bit Russian – and of course the association between left-wing Corbyn and old-fashioned Communism makes the link much stronger.

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Move on to Stephen Yaxley-Lennon – better known by his activist name of Tommy Robinson. In this case, they used one of Yaxley-Lennon’s own PR pictures as the basis of their backdrop for their special feature on him: a picture specially designed to suggest that the issues around him were about ‘gagging’ and restricting free speech, rather than contempt of court and other related issues. The debate was automatically framed by the picture.

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In all these three cases the actions of the BBC are defensible – and defended – in the detail, but the overall effect is quite different, and much harder to defend. Appearances matter, as anyone involved in television must know. The big questions to ask are why these things happen – and this is where the conspiracy theories start to kick in. Personally, I do not subscribe to conspiracy theories often. Cock-up is generally far more likely than conspiracy – particularly where the BBC is involved. In relation to the fake vicar, I suspect it is much more to do with underpaid and overworked researchers not doing their job properly – and being ‘played’ by the fake vicar herself. As anyone involved in this kind of a programme will know, there are plenty of weirdos and extremists who work very hard to get on programmes like Newsnight, Question Time and so on – and plenty of people working to get their supporters on such programmes. They can be very persistent, they can work their contacts and so on. It’s entirely possible that this is what happened here. Lynn wanted to be on TV, and in particular on a programme like this. She wanted to get her views across, she wanted them to be taken seriously, and she found a way to do this.

The BBC somehow let her – and we will probably never find out how or why – because they will in all probability never admit what actually happened.  Acknowledging mistakes, misjudgments, or having been played seems to be something that the BBC finds unbelievably hard to do. Instead, as in all three cases above, they defend on the detail and refuse even to pay lip service to the bigger picture or the bigger issues involved. That is both sad and unhelpful, because it fuels exactly the conspiracy theories that the BBC should be opposing. If no errors are ever acknowledged, people find it easier to believe that the BBC is doing all this intentionally – and it erodes the trust that people still have in the BBC.

This last part is particularly important. In the era of fake news, what we need more than anything else is real and reliable news to counter it. The BBC could and should be a part of that, a place that fake news and conspiracy theories can be countered, an anchor point in a sea of misinformation and disinformation. At times of political turmoil this is critical – and it would be great if the BBC could find a way back from the edge. A starting point would be just to say ‘sorry, we got it wrong’. For the BBC, however, sorry seems to be the hardest word.

A few words on Freedom of Movement…

Early on in the Brexit ‘debate’ I was asked by someone ‘why do you care about freedom of movement? Why is it something that bothers you so much?’ It’s a question that has come up again and again ever since – and though I answer it as often as I have the energy it feels as though it will keep on coming up. It’s usually followed by a number of follow-up questions or statements that, if only those people saying them realised, explain exactly why I care about it, and why it bothers me. Rather than being, as people often suggest, a middle-class, privileged thing, it’s a critical right particularly for the working class, something of benefit to all. Rather than a tool for the neo-liberals to oppress the workers, to shunt people around Europe at a whim, it is a vital workers’ right and fits well into the long history and struggle by workers. It shifts power from the rich and powerful, the multinationals and the exploitative employers, to the workers. It’s something that those on the political left should support, not oppose.

Nothing to do with open borders

First and foremost, it needs to be clear that freedom of movement is not about open borders. Indeed, people might notice that in yesterday’s political declaration about the future relationship between the EU and the UK just two paragraphs after proclaiming the end of free movement, the aim of ‘visa-free’ travel for short term visits is declared.

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Even then, it wouldn’t have meant open borders. We have never had open borders in the UK – with the grand and vital exception of the border in Ireland – and freedom of movement has never meant that. We have always controlled our borders (again with the noted exception). Anyone who’s ever been on holiday abroad via airport, seaport or the channel tunnel knows that. The queues at passport control have never disappeared. That would have been so with Schengen, but we have never joined Schengen. So, no, freedom of movement isn’t about open borders.

Not a middle-class indulgence

‘You’re just upset because it’ll make your holidays in the South of France harder’, or ‘it’ll just stop Tarquin and Felicity going interrailling on their gap years’ or ‘you just want a villa in Tuscany’ are just a selection of the dismissive comments I’ve heard when I’ve defended freedom of movement. None of that is even close to the truth. It won’t make holidays in the South of France harder – it’s nothing about that. The rich and privileged have always been able to travel – money gives you that power. Even if visas become an issue, the rich know how to get them. The systems have always been designed to let them find a way. Bureaucracy works in their favour. Money talks. They have the knowledge and the contacts to work the systems – and the systems are weighted in their favour too. The upper classes have gone on ‘Grand Tours’ to Europe for centuries – and sent their daughters to ‘finishing schools’ in Switzerland and so forth since well before the idea of the EU had even been conceived. ‘Ex-pats’ can be found all around the world – whether freedom of movement exists or not.

It’s not just a neo-liberal thing

Another regular complaint – particularly from the left – is that freedom of movement is a tool of the neo-liberal right, to shunt workers around the world at a whim. In practice, this is the reverse of the truth. Removing freedom of movement will give the multinationals more power – the freedom of movement transferred their power to workers. This may seem counterintuitive. It needs to be thought through. What freedom of movement, in its EU form, does is give the individual worker the right to live and work in any of the member states. They don’t need a work visa, they don’t need a job offer, they don’t need to go through any special bureaucracy – just the ‘right to work’ checks that people will be familiar with when they apply for any job in the UK now. Show your passport or similar form of ID. That’s putting power in the hands of the worker.

Bureaucracy favours the rich…

If you don’t have that, then you have to institute some kind of bureaucratic procedure. The two most common aspects are points-based systems and the need for a job offer. Both of these are effectively anti-workers. Points-based systems are naturally biased depending on how the points are determined. They favour people who are more educated, for example – but they also favour people who are better at working their way through bureaucracy – form filling is never simple, as anyone who has ever claimed benefits should know. It puts people off. It’s used as a barrier, and has a ‘chilling effect’. It also puts more power in the hands of employers or agencies. ‘We’ll sort out your visa’ or ‘we’ll work the system for you’, so long as you accept our terms and conditions. Our lower wages, shorter terms etc etc. Gangmasters are empowered, not workers. And if the barriers are in place, this also empowers illegal gangmasters. If you can’t get in legally, then there’s more incentive to work ‘on the black’. If you fail to get a work visa, you’ll be more likely to seek out the criminal element. All round, removing freedom of movement is disempowering for workers, and empowering for the worst kind of employers.

Coming over here…

‘But it helps undercut wages and takes our jobs’. No, it really doesn’t. The evidence suggests that in the past it has been mainly beneficial to wages, except at the very lowest end – and this latter effect (described as infinitesimal by the author of the one report often cited by Leavers) is in itself very misleading. First of all it has come at a time when government policy has been very much anti-worker – if we had freedom of movement and a left wing government, those effects could be negated with stronger and better enforced employment laws. Higher minimum wages (and potentially rules linking executive pay to wages at the bottom end etc), stronger union rights and so forth could outweigh this effect. Moreover, the other consequences of removing freedom of movement – losing full access to the single market, raising prices etc – would mean that even if wages at the bottom end rose a little the cost of living for those earning those wages would increase even more, leaving those workers worse off.

Freedom of movement doesn’t hit jobs either – to think so is to fall for the ‘lump of labour fallacy’, that there is some fixed amount of work that needs to be divided up between however many workers are available. That isn’t how it works in practice, Immigration boosts economies and creates more jobs, both directly and indirectly. Immigrants are employers as well as employed. They consume, they use services, they live. They fill gaps in the market that make our economy more efficient – to the benefit of everyone overall. They’re not ‘coming over here, taking our jobs’ as often as they are ‘coming over here and doing the jobs that need to be done’.

Exploiters gonna exploit…

None of this is to suggest that exploitative employers don’t take advantage of freedom of movement. Of course they do. That’s how they operate. That doesn’t mean that shutting down freedom of movement will help – they’ll exploit the lack of freedom of movement just as much as they currently exploit its existence. They’ll work the systems, putting workers in a worse position. Again, history and understanding of the struggle for workers’ rights should show how this works. Removing the workers’ rights because of exploitative practice by employers isn’t just perverse it simply won’t work. What is needed is better protection for all workers from exploitation. Work on the employers, don’t take away the rights of the employed. Again, things like raising minimum wages and forcing better conditions and union rights are the key, not removing freedom of movement.

So why oppose freedom of movement?

Given all of this, why do people still oppose freedom of movement? This is why I get the most frustrated – and why this really is an issue that matters to me. The potential reasons for rejecting freedom of movement are all bad. One is that you don’t really understand what freedom of movement is. You equate it with ‘open borders’ and believe that open borders are a bad thing (the reasons for that may be even worse). You don’t believe the evidence that it’s not bad for wages and jobs – and policy based on a rejection of evidence is the worst of all. If you reject evidence, you should ask yourself why you reject it. Faced with two potential stories, and without the expertise to evaluate the two sources accurately, people tend to fall back on which of the stories fits with their presumptions. Their prejudices. That brings into play some other damaging myths.

Freedom of movement, benefits and the NHS

The two most common – and most depressing – are those of ‘health tourism’ and ‘benefits tourism’. The idea that people are ‘coming over here’ to take advantage of the NHS or to live of our ‘soft’ benefits system. Neither are true, and both are based on prejudice. Health tourism is minimal – and the NHS benefits massively from immigration and freedom of movement in particular, It’s critical to the staffing, and without it the crisis in the NHS will get far, far worse. Benefits tourism is similarly small – and freedom of movement rules allow member states to restrict it almost completely. That either health tourism or benefits tourism are significant problems are damaging myths pushed primarily by right-wing politicians and newspapers. And yet people believe them, even on the left of politics.

Freedom of movement and xenophobia

This, in the end, is the bottom line. Faced by strong evidence in favour of freedom of movement and evidence against freedom of movement that is questionable at best, why would people choose to believe the latter? The only obvious conclusion is that they generally don’t like foreigners and immigration. That means, in the end, xenophobia. Why would it matter that you get a British nurse rather than a Slovakian one, or a British plumber rather than a Pole? They’re not taking ‘our’ jobs, or lowering wages, they’re not costing us money in benefits or putting a strain on the health service, or even in education. Our housing problems are caused by chronic failure to build and a dysfunctional housing market, not on immigrants – and to solve that, surprisingly enough, we need to build more houses. The construction industry uses immigrant workers more than most – and if we want to build more houses this is likely to continue.

And anyway…

All of this misses the point overall. Freedom of movement is a reciprocal right – people seem to tend to forget that it’s not just about people coming to the UK but about UK people being able to live, work, love, marry and more in the rest of the EU. It’s a positive thing. It’s a freedom. By removing it we’re making ourselves less free. We’re taking something away from ourselves. We’re narrowing rather than broadening our horizons – and all for either a misunderstanding of the concept or a misinterpretation of the evidence – or worse, from xenophobia.

So yes, I care about freedom of movement. I want more of it. I want to expand and extend it beyond the EU – and this brings me to the last and perhaps most pernicious of myths, that freedom of movement within the EU is somehow unfair on the rest of the world. ‘Queue jumping’ as Theresa May put it. There are so many problems with this argument. Firstly, the EU has nothing to do with our immigration policies with the rest of the world. The limitations on Indians coming to the UK, for example, are imposed by us, not by the EU. Secondly, to believe that each immigrant from the EU coming here means one fewer from outside the EU should be allowed is to fall for another fallacy closely related to the lump of labour fallacy. It presumes we have a fixed capacity, that we’re nearly ‘full’. We don’t, and we aren’t. We’re not close to being ‘full’ – our population density isn’t even that high, and immigration can actually help us as the population grows, filling gaps where needed. Social care is just one example. The problems associated with our ageing ‘native’ population are made worse by restricting immigration.

And, last of all, look at the human element. Freedom of movement has enabled so many wonderful human stories. So many wonderful people coming to the UK – and wonderful people from the UK going to other places. So many love stories. So many cultural experiences. So much general enrichment. Why can’t we embrace that rather than making it a red line….

 

The Internet, Warts and All: Free Speech, Privacy and Truth

My new book, the Internet, Warts and All, has just been published. The subtitle – Free Speech, Privacy and Truth – gives and indication of its subject matter and scope: this is a wide-ranging, broad-brush book covering a great variety of different subjects, from some of the theoretical background to free speech, privacy and truth to specific subjects – there’s a chapter on surveillance, another on trolling, and one whose main subject is fake news.

The idea for the book originally came to an extent out of frustration: why are governments so bad at dealing with the internet? Why are their laws so often counterproductive, their policies incoherent, and their politicians’ speeches so full of rubbish? Why is it so difficult for people to see the consequences of their ideas – things like ‘real names’ policies or demanding back-doors for encryption? Why do they think it would be easy for tech companies to ‘deal’ with trolls if only they put enough effort into it? It isn’t only governments of course – the media, academia and the technology industry itself is often just as guilty.

The Internet, Warts and All attempts to cut through some of this. The basic premise is that we need to be better at seeing the bigger picture – and understanding that the messy, flawed, confusing and paradoxical nature of the internet is not something that can be ‘sorted out’ by more law or more effort. It’s part of how things work. It’s a strength of the internet, not a weakness.

The Internet, Warts and All is to a great extent intended as a ‘myth-busting’ book – many of the chapters take common assumptions about their subjects head on, from broad ideas like the permanence of material on the net and the ‘balance’ to be found between privacy and security (spoiler: it’s not a balance) to specifics such as the ‘organic’ or ‘neutral’ nature of Google search or Facebook’s ‘platform’. Some of the examples used may be quite familiar – laws like the Investigatory Powers Act, the trolling tale of GamerGate, the farrago that was the NHS’s care.data – others less so, such as the mess that was Samaritans Radar and the tragic story of Brenda Leyland. They will, however, demonstrate that what is being discussed in the book isn’t just academic theory, but an observation of the reality of the internet as it is, and something about why that matters.

By its nature, The Internet, Warts and All, is very broad-brush, but it points to some of the excellent work done by academics in particular areas – researching the book has led me to read and appreciate the work of many great scholars even more.

The book is published by Cambridge University Press, and can be found here: http://admin.cambridge.org/academic/subjects/law/intellectual-property/internet-warts-and-all-free-speech-privacy-and-truth

I shall be talking about the book – or at least some aspects of the book on a number of occasions in September:

Informally, at the SLS conference at QMUL (Sept 5-7)

At the wonderful GiKii in Vienna (Sept 13)

At New Scientist Live at the Excel Centre in London, on Sept 21st https://live.newscientist.com/speakers/paul-bernal

At a public lecture for The Register at the Rugby Tavern, London, on Sept 27th https://www.theregister.co.uk/AMP/2018/08/13/the_register_lecture_accepting_the_internet_warts_and_all_trailer_2

I hope at least some of these will be interesting – and I probably won’t be able to stop myself talking about the book on many more occasions.