Yesterday’s decision in the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) in what has been dubbed the ‘Europe vs Facebook’ case was, as the Open Rights Group puts it, a ‘landmark victory for privacy rights’. Much has already been written about it. I do not propose to cover the same territory in any depth – the Open Rights Group blog post linked to above gives much of the background – but instead to examine the response of the European Commission, and the elephant in the Commission’s room: surveillance.
The judgment was published yesterday morning, and its essence was very simple. The ‘safe harbor’ agreement, which effectively allows personal data to be transferred from the EU to the US by some 4,000 or so companies, was declared invalid, because though under the agreement the relevant US companies promise to provide protection for that data in many ways – security, promising not to repurpose it, misuse it, hold it longer than necessary and so forth, essentially along the lines of European Data Protection law – there was one thing that it could not provide protection from: surveillance by the US authorities.
As the CJEU put it (paragraph 94 of the ruling):
“…legislation permitting the public authorities to have access on a generalised basis to the content of electronic communications must be regarded as compromising the essence of the fundamental right to respect for private life…”
This is where the European Commission comes in. It was the Commission that made the ‘safe harbor’ decision, setting up the safe harbor system, which should, in accordance with data protection law, have ensured that data was adequately protected in the US. The Commission did not ensure that – and did not even state that it did – primarily because the state of US surveillance law (and, as far as we know, US surveillance practice) could not allow it. US surveillance law means that ‘national security, public interest, or law enforcement requirements’ override privacy and other rights where non-US citizens are concerned, and EU citizens have no form of protection against this, or legal remedies available.
The Elephant in the Room
This, it must be clear, is a fundamental issue. If the US can do this, without control or redress, then whatever systems are in place, whatever systems are brought in to replace the now invalidated ‘Safe Harbor’, will similarly breach fundamental privacy rights. No new ‘safe harbor’, no individual arrangements for particular companies, no other sidestepping plans would seem to be possible. Unless US surveillance law – and, US surveillance practice – is changed, no safe harbor would seem to be possible.
The Commission, however, does not seem willing – or perhaps ready – to confront this issue. Their brief statement in response to the ruling, published yesterday afternoon, does not mention surveillance even once. That in itself is quite remarkable. The closest it gets to accepting what is, in fact, the essence of the ruling, is a tangential reference to ‘the Snowden revelations in 2013’ without mentioning anything about what those revelations related to. There is no mention of US surveillance law, of the NSA, of national security or of anything else relating to it. The surveillance elephant in the room looms over everything but the Commission seems to be pretending that it does not even exist.
The US authorities, however, are quite aware of the elephant – in a somewhat panicky press release last week, between the opinion of the Attorney General that presaged the CJEU ruling, the ‘US Mission to the European Union’ said that the ‘United States does not and has not engaged in indiscriminate surveillance of anyone, including ordinary European citizens‘. They do not, however, seem to have convinced the CJEU of this. Far from it.
Heads in the sand
In a way it should not be a surprise that the Commission seems to have their heads in the sand about this issue. It is not at all easy to see a way out of this. Will the US stop or change its surveillance practices and law? It is hard to imagine that they would, particularly in response to a ruling in a European court. Can they provide convincing evidence that they are not engaging in mass, indiscriminate surveillance? Again it seems unlikely, primarily because the evidence points increasingly precisely the opposite way.
There are big questions about what actually constitutes ‘surveillance’ – does surveillance occur when data is ‘collected’, when it is accessed automatically or analysed algorithmically, or when human eyes are involved? The US (and UK) authorities suggest the latter, but the European Courts (both the CJEU and the European Court of Human Rights) have found that privacy rights are engaged when data is gathered or held – and rightly so, in the view of most privacy scholars. There are many reasons for this. There is a chilling effect of the existence of the surveillance apparatus itself and the ‘panopticon’ issue: we alter our behaviour when we believe we might be being watched, not just when we are watched. There is the question of data vulnerability – if data has been gathered, then it might be hacked, lost or leaked even before it is analysed. The very existence of the Snowden leaks makes it clear that even the NSA isn’t able to guarantee its data security. Fundamentally, where data exists, it is vulnerable. There are other arguments – the strength of algorithmic analysis, for example, may well mean that there is more effective intrusion without human involvement in the process, the importance of meta-data and so forth – but they all point in the same direction. Data gathering, despite what the US and UK authorities might wish to say, does interfere with our privacy. That means, in the end, that fundamental rights are engaged.
What happens next?
That is the big question. The invalidation of safe harbor has huge repercussions and there will be some manic lobbying taking place behind the scenes. The Commission will have to consider the surveillance elephant in the room soon. It isn’t going away on its own.
And behind that elephant there are other elephants: if US surveillance and surveillance law is a problem, then what about UK surveillance? Is GCHQ any less intrusive than the NSA? It does not seem so – and this puts even more pressure on the current reviews of UK surveillance law taking place. If, as many predict, the forthcoming Investigatory Powers Bill will be even more intrusive and extensive than current UK surveillance laws this will put the UK in a position that could rapidly become untenable. If the UK decides to leave the EU, will that mean that the UK is not considered a safe place for European data? Right now that seems the only logical conclusion – but the ramifications for UK businesses could be huge.
More huge elephants are also looming – the various world-wide trade agreements currently being semi-secretly negotiated, from the TPP (Trans-Pacific Partnership – between the various Pacific Rim countries including the US, Australia, NZ, Japan) to the TISA (the Trade In Services Agreement), TTIP (Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership – between the EU and the US) and CETA (Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement – between Canada and the EU) seem to involve data flows (and freedom from government interference with those data flows) that would seem to fly directly in the face of the CJEU ruling. If data needs to be safe from surveillance, it cannot be allowed to flow freely into places where surveillance is too indiscriminate and uncontrolled. That means the US. These agreements would also seem likely to allow (or even require) various forms of surveillance to let copyright holders ensure their rights are upheld – and if surveillance for national security and public safety is an infringement of fundamental rights, so would surveillance to enforce copyright.
What happens next, therefore, is hard to foresee. What cannot be done, however, is to ignore the elephant in the room. The issue of surveillance has to be taken on. The conflict between that surveillance and fundamental human rights is not a merely semantic one, or one for lawyers and academics, it’s a real one. In the words of historian and philosopher Quentin Skinner “the current situation seems to me untenable in a democratic society.” The conflict over Safe Harbor is in many ways just a symptom of that far bigger problem. The biggest elephant of all.